By Marge Knoth, Author, Activity Professional
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Author, Activity Professional
Valley Press Books

Marge Knoth attended Purdue
University and took her activity
director training at Indiana
University and her social
service at Ball State.  She is
the author of ten books for
activity professionals. Her
books have been used as
teaching guides in colleges,
trade schools, and in activity
director courses throughout the
U.S. and Canada. They have
won both national and state
awards from the National
Federation of Press Women
and Women’s Press Club of

Marge has written a monthly
column, "A Letter from Marge"
for Current Activities in Long
Term Care.  She has been
published in Family Circle,
Lady’s Circle, Women’s Circle,
Indianapolis Woman, Christian
Science Monitor, Event,
various Christian and craft
publications, and other
magazines and newspapers.
She wrote a weekly newspaper
column called “Do You
Remember?”, and wrote and
recorded a long-running series
of nostalgic radio
commercials.  Also, she is a
motivational speaker having
traveled the United States and
Canada speaking at many state
and province activity
To Order Books by Marge Knoth
Puny, Pudgy, Powerful and Principled Presidents
by Marge Knoth

As activity professionals we are always in need of activities, especially those we can
pull out quickly when our scheduled entertainment falls through. In my 25 years as an
activity professional, I have found one subject that will usually get residents actively
involved--past Presidents. But so often we don’t have time to dig for the needed
information. Well, don’t worry. You have it now.
   Beginning this month, we are giving you a brief walk through of the lives of the 41
Presidents who have made their home at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington DC.
We are not going to look at any heavy politics, but rather the lighter, human side of the
men who led our great nation through good times and bad.

How do I use the following material?
   Residents generally have a favorite President (usually FDR, I’ve found). Ask them
who was
President when they, their parents, and their grandparents were born. Use the following
presidential information for reminiscence groups, for trivia, or for a history lesson.
Feature one President in each newsletter. Make games and contests out of it. Highlight
a “President of the Month” on your bulletin board. Ask residents for dates that specific
Presidents served, what they were famous for, and which ones were assassinated.
Post a presidential time-line on a long wall to offer residents, staff, and visitors a
chance to gather and enjoy some historical fun. So without further ado, let’s jump right
into the lives of some very great, yet very human men.

1) George Washington (1789-97) was a man of few words who possessed great
courage and an unusual strength of character. He was at his best in dire
circumstances be they hunger, cold, lack of ammunition, or war. While in the battlefields
with his troops, he was often known to go to his tent and have intense prayer with God.
Washington was not so successful with women. He proposed to two different ladies,
and they both refused him. Finally he married Martha Curtis, the richest widow in
Virginia. He stood six-feet, three and one-half inches (very tall for those days), and had
enormous hands. His skin was pock-marked as a result of having smallpox as a
teenager. George lost most of his teeth before becoming President. He had false teeth
that were mostly lead, fitted with human, cattle, and hippopotamus teeth. Some were
even carved from elephant and walrus tusks. He had a domineering mother.
Washington was an excellent horseman, a surveyor, and a good, though not a great,
general. He was the only President never to live in the White House, but he supervised
its building. He served from the nation’s first capitol in the old city hall in New York City.
Washington liked formality and his administration reflected it. At receptions guests
would approach him, one at a time, and bow. He had 300 slaves which he freed in his
will. In December of 1799 Washington developed a sore throat. His doctors treated it
the usual way back then, by bleeding him. He quickly grew weak and died. Politically, he
was a federalist who supported a strong central government. In both his presidential
elections, Washington won unanimously in the electoral college. His strongest ally was
Alexander Hamilton.

2) John Adams (1797-1801). A Harvard-educated lawyer from Massachusetts, John
Adams was a leader in the American Revolution. He was short and plump and had a
taste for plain clothes and plain talk. He was an outstanding founding father who
helped draft the Declaration of Independence though Jefferson, a better writer, got to
write it. He was respected for his honesty but often offended people with his blunt
frankness. Adams was the first Vice-President and described the job as “the most
insignificant office that ever the invention of man contrived or his imagination
conceived”. In that office he wrote and published. During his second day in the White
House Adams wrote, “I pray Heaven to Bestow the Best of Blessings on THIS HOUSE
and on All that shall hereafter Inhabit it. May none but Honest and Wise Men ever rule
under This Roof.” Adam’s presidency began in Philadelphia but he served the last few
months of his term in the brand new White House. He, too, had a formal administration
preferring that people bow to him rather than shake his hand. Abigail, his wife (John
called her Abby), was known to speak her mind to the President. They wrote long letters
during their frequent separations. A woman’s-libber before her time, Abby reminded
John (in his politics), “Don’t forget the ladies”. She was called “Mrs. President” and was
known for her style and manners. A year before Adam’s death, he witnessed his son,
John Quincy, become the 6 President of the th United States. In the 1794 election,
Adams won over Jefferson and became President by just three electoral votes. That
made Jefferson Vice- President.

3) Thomas Jefferson (1801-1809)
Jefferson was 6 foot, 2-1/2" tall and had fiery red hair. He would serenade his wife
Martha Skelton with his violin. She died young. They had five children. Though he never
remarried, he is said to have fathered five children by Sally Hemings, one of his slaves.
Considered a terrible speaker because of a speech impediment, Jefferson was a gifted
writer who wrote the Declaration of Independence. He spoke seven languages. He was
a lawyer, astronomer, philosopher, agriculturalist, statesman, inventor, scientist,
horseman, and theologian. Though quite wealthy, he related with the common people
and often dressed in old clothes. As President, he put a stop to the bowing of his
guests, and instead shook their hands. With the Louisiana Purchase, Jefferson
doubled the size of the United States. He and John Adams were friends in their young
years, but their friendship was broken when their politics differed. In later years it was
restored, and they wrote long letters to each other. Jefferson and Adams died on the
same day, July 4, 1826--exactly 50 years to the day of the signing of the Declaration of

4) James Madison (1809-1817) Madison is known as the “Father of the Constitution”
because he drafted a complete plan (the Virginia Plan) for a new national government.
He also helped write the final version of the Constitution. Soft-spoken, he was just 5'4"
and weighed less than 100 pounds. During the Continental Congress he alone thought
to take notes of the debates. He was a planter, statesman and lawyer, though he did
not have a law degree. Madison witnessed the revolution of railroad and steamboat
transportation. He saw the new country grow to 25 states and stretch west to the
Mississippi. At age 44 he married Dolly Todd, who was known for her social charm.
She became one of the most popular First Ladies. They had no children. He was
President during the War of 1812. Jefferson nurtured Madison in the political arena, and
they became close friends. The White House was burned by the British during his
presidency. When the British were approaching, Dolly was warned to flee quickly but
she refused to go until the large portrait of George Washington was unscrewed from
the wall and taken down. Congress issued $50,000 to rebuild and refurnish the White

5) James Monroe (1817-25). Monroe, a lawyer, married beautiful Elizabeth Kortwright
and had two daughters. Wounded in the Revolutionary War at the battle of Trenton, he
carried a ball in his shoulder all his life. In the famous painting of Washington crossing
the Delaware, James Madison is the young man holding the flag. When running for his
second term, he received every electoral vote except one, and that person said that “only
George Washington deserved a unanimous vote.” Out of the first five Presidents, he
was the fourth Virginian to become President. He obtained Florida from Spain, and
recognized the independence of the new South American republics. Monroe was
adamantly against ratifying the Constitution unless there was to be a Bill of Rights. He
was famous for the Monroe Doctrine that prevented European nations from interfering
with existing governments in North or South America or from colonizing any part of
America. After his presidency he built Ash Lawn, a home near Jefferson’s Monticello.
Madison was the third founding father to die on July 4.

6) John Quincy Adams (1825-29), the son of John and Abigail, stood five foot, seven
inches tall.
Loving exercise, he walked several miles a day. Even at 80, he would walk a mile to a
favorite secluded spot, pull off his clothes, and go for a swim. He was the only son of a
President to become President until George Bush. As a boy he watched the Battle of
Bunker Hill. At 10, he traveled to Europe with his father and attended school there and in
the Netherlands. At fourteen he went to Russia as a private secretary to an America
diplomat. He graduated from Harvard with a law degree. He was the only President to
win the presidency with fewer electoral and fewer popular votes than his opponent. A
devout man, he began every day by reading several chapters from the Bible—not just in
English, but in French and German as well. He read other languages fluently, too. While
President he received many unfounded attacks by Jacksonians which caused him to be
bitter and prejudice. This clouded his presidency. When Jackson won the next election,
John Quincy Adams refused to attend Jackson’s inauguration. He felt he would die
soon, yet after his presidency, he was elected to the House of Representatives where
he served for 17 years. He died at his desk. His last words were, “I am content.”

7) Andrew Jackson (1829-37) was six feet tall, slim, and had wild hair that stood
straight up. He had a prominent nose, a firm mouth, and an eye that could threaten or
command. Girls loved his Irish brogue and daring spirit, but their mothers didn’t. A
contemporary wrote that “his whole being conveyed the impression of energy and
daring.” Unlike former Presidents who came from the East, Jackson grew up poor in a
log cabin, and joined the army at just 13. He fought in the Revolutionary War. Becoming
a hero by winning the Battle of New Orleans against the British, he became known as
“Old Hickory”. His father died before his birth, and he was orphaned at 14 when his
mother and brother died of smallpox. At 16, he received an inheritance when his
grandfather in Ireland died, but he squandered it all on clothes, horse races, dice,
drinking, and wild living. He moved “out west” to Nashville. He fought duels, and once
he was almost killed, but he got the upper hand and killed his enemy. Jackson was
extremely loyal to his friends, but the person who crossed or betrayed him was in deep
trouble. His beloved wife Rachel Robards died at 33, just prior to his inauguration. He
had one adopted son. People wanted a down-home President in whom they could
relate, so General Jackson was appreciated. Though a warrior and rough frontiersman,
he was gentle, caring, tender, and deeply affectionate. A born leader, he was a faithful
church-goer. Two different wellbred ladies said of him, “He is the finest gentleman I
ever met.”

8) Martin Van Buren (1837-41), a lawyer from Kinderhook, New York, was a small, calm,
gentle man who stood just 5 foot 6 ½ inches tall. He grew up speaking Dutch more than
English as his ancestors came from the Netherlands. He was the first President born
an American citizen as all others had been British subjects. He was fussy about his
appearance. The family liked to stay up late at night, and then sleep late in the
mornings. As Vice-President, one day Van Buren was still asleep at noon when he was
supposed to call the senate to order. Dolly Madison brought a young relative, beautiful
Angelica Singleton, to visit the White House. There Angelica met one of Van Buren four
sons who later married her. She became First Lady of the White House. Martin Van
Buren was called the “Little Magician” because he could, behind the scene, get things
done. His opponents, the Whigs, blamed Van Buren for a bad economic depression
calling him Martin Van Ruin. They also faulted him for spending money to install a hot-
water tank in the White House to warm his bath water. Van Buren proposed an
independent treasury system be established so the government could keep control of
the revenue it collected in taxes instead of using private banks. He also proposed paper
money be issued in the form of treasury notes.

9) William Henry Harrison (1841). His father was Benjamin Harrison, one of the signers
of the Declaration of Independence, and a close friend of George Washington. He was
a farmer, but to fulfill his father’s wishes, he began studying medicine at Pennsylvania
Medical School. When his father died he disregarded that career and joined the Army.
He fought Indians. In the War of 1812 he defeated Tecumseh at the Battle of
Tippecanoe. He married Ann Symmes and fathered 11 children. At 68, he was elected
President. To show his heartiness, he refused to wear an overcoat for his inaugural
which was on a cold, wet, rainy day. Then foolishly, he rode on horseback for two hours
in a parade. He caught pneumonia and died a month later. William Harrison was the
oldest man elected President, the first to die in office, and he served the shortest term

10) John Tyler (1841-45) came from a strong Virginia family whose land had been a
working plantation for some 250 years. When Tyler was elected Vice-President under
Harrison, he headed home to Williamsburg to visit. There he was awakened early one
morning and told that Harrison was dead and that he was the President. His first
marriage to Letitia Christian lasted nearly 30 years and then she died. They had eight
children. One day while the President was taking a trip down the Potomac on a new
steam-powered warship, one of the guns exploded. Many were killed. On board with her
father was attractive and wealthy Julia Gardiner, a 23 year-old New York socialite. Her
father died in the explosion. Tyler personally carried Julia off the boat and cared for her.
Four months later they were married. She gave him seven more children, totaling
fifteen. He was not a popular President as he switched from his southern Democrat
party to run on the Whig ticket. Then, as President, he vetoed every bill the Whigs
presented. Thus he had no party to support him. He did not want the existing cabinet,
so he relied on his own advisors who were called his “kitchen cabinet.” A friend said of
him, “When he thinks he is right, he is as obstinate as a bull, and no power on earth
can move him.” When war between the states appeared evident, he first tried to make
peace, but when that didn’t work, he hurried to Virginia and urged them to secede from
the union. Today, though, history records Tyler as a strong man who stood on his

11th (President) James Polk (1845-49) . Polk, the oldest of 10 children, was born in
North Carolina of Scotch-Irish parents. He was a small man standing five-foot, eight-
inches tall. His clothes always appeared too big for him. With cold eyes and a taunt
mouth, he lacked a sense of humor. Polk was a workaholic. Along with his wife, Sarah
Childress who was his personal secretary, he worked 12 to 14 hours a day. They had
no children. He said, “I prefer to supervise the whole operations of the Government
myself rather than entrust the public business to subordinates, and this makes my
duties very great.” His family moved west to Tennessee, but he came home to North
Carolina to study law. A friend of Andrew Jackson who was called “Old Hickory”, Polk
became known as “Little Hickory”. He was a suspicious man, and a devout Methodist
while his beloved wife was a strong Presbyterian. Because of her strict Moravian beliefs
she would not permit drinking, dancing, or card playing in the White House. Neither
would she attend the theater or horse races. At the inaugural ball, music and dancing
were halted during the two hours the Polks were present. He was President during the
Gold Rush and the early railroad days. At 49, at that time, he was the youngest man
ever to become President. Polk added one-million square miles to the United States by
expanding our borders to the west coast. He offered to buy California and New Mexico
from Mexico, but war became necessary. He even offered to buy Cuba from Spain for
$100 million, but they refused. Rather than go to war with Great Britain, Polk
established the Canada-Oregon border at the 49th parallel. President James
Buchanan said of Polk, “He was the most laborious man I have ever known, and in a
brief period of four years had assumed the appearance of an old man.” He died three
months after leaving office. His last words were, “I love you Sarah, for all eternity, I love

12th Zachary Taylor (1849-50) was a short, round man, five feet eight inches tall, 170
pounds, with a large head and very short legs. He required help from his orderly to
mount his horse. A soldier for 40 years, he gained a reputation fighting in the Indian and
Mexican wars. His fame, in part, came in the Battle of Buena Vista where with just 5000
troops, he defeated Mexican General Santa Anna who had attacked him with between
16,000-20,000 troops. Taylor grew up in the wilds of Kentucky near Louisville on
thousands of acres of land that his father received as a bonus for serving in the
Revolutionary War. Without schools there, he studied only through occasional tutors
that his father hired. His wife, Margaret Smith, like Andrew Jackson’s wife, smoked a
corncob pipe. They had six children. One daughter (against his father’s wishes)
married Jefferson Davis, who later became the President of the Confederacy. She died
three months after the wedding. He was a second cousin to former President James
Madison. Taylor cared little about formality preferring to wear civilian clothes rather than
military issue, even in battle. His sloppiness in military dress, his cursing, and his
tobacco-chewing caused his men to call him “Old Rough and Ready.” One would never
guess him to be a military hero. Taylor was several days late acknowledging his
Presidential nomination because he refused to pay the 10 cents postage due on the
informing letter. Zachary Taylor hated politics and never voted for a President in his life.
He had no political experience. He said, “I never had any aspirations for the presidency,
nor do I now.” Taylor’s presidency lasted only a year and four months. One night after a
hot day in the sun, he consumed large amounts of iced milk and cherries. His doctor
pleaded with him to stop, but he refused. He developed violent cramps and died five
days later. Some felt he was poisoned, but it could not be proven.

13th Millard Fillmore (1850-53) a lawyer from New York became President when
Zachary Taylor died in office. Standing five-feet, nine-inches tall, Fillmore was a
handsome man displaying a well developed chest and bright blue eyes. His large and
poor family were farmers. At 14 he was apprenticed to a cloth-maker. Later he fell in
love with Abigail Powers, a school teacher who helped him get out of the
apprenticeship for $30. He bought a dictionary and got a job teaching school. Their
courtship lasted seven years, until he became an established lawyer. They had a very
loving marriage. As a legislature, Fillmore helped develop the public school system. He
installed the first bath tub with running water in the White House as well as a modern
cast iron stove so they could stop cooking in fireplaces. Abigail established the first
White House library in the Oval Room. Immediately following his term, Abigail died of
pneumonia. He later married a wealthy widow, Caroline McIntosh. After Fillmore died,
his possessions were sold and his only son burned his letters and papers. (An
interesting thought is that in a little over nine years there were six Presidents: Van Buren,
Harrison, Tyler, Polk, Taylor and Fillmore.)

14th Franklin Pierce (1853-57) went to Bowdoin College in Maine with Henry
Wadsworth Longfellow and Nathaniel Hawthorne. His father was a Revolutionary War
veteran. Known as “Handsome Frank”, he stood five-feet, ten-inches tall, had black
wavy hair, penetrating gray eyes, and a great build. A colorful dresser, he married Jane
Means Appleton, the daughter of the president of the college. Religious to a fault, she
was adamantly against drinking. Disliking Washington, she refused to go there with
Franklin when he became a congressman. He began enjoying the life of a boisterous
bachelor and drank far too much. When he and his friends began seeking the
presidential nomination, they kept it secret from Jane. Two candidates were seeking
the Democratic nomination. Neither could get the necessary two-thirds vote. So on the
35th ballot, Pierce’s friends entered his name. By the 49th ballot, Pierce was chosen.
As President-elect, his only surviving child (two other sons had already died) was killed
in a train accident. His wife, who hated politics, took refuge in an upstairs bedroom
where she remained for two years wearing black and writing letters to one of her dead
sons. Her aunt acted as the official White House hostess. Their marriage disintegrated.
Because fireplaces left the White House cold, he installed its first coal-burning furnace
and central heating system.. Living frugally in the White House, he saved half of his
$25,000 salary. He also reduced the national debt from $60 million to $11 million.
Pierce refused Hawaii’s request to become a state. Pierce is the least known American
President. Because of his pro-slavery stance he was unpopular for many years in his
own state of New Hampshire. Pierce was the only President who served his entire term
without having to make a single change in his cabinet.

15th James Buchanan (1857-61), six-feet tall and heavyset, was near-sighted in one
eye and farsighted in the other. This caused him to tilt his head to one side and look
down. He grew up in the Blue Mountains of Pennsylvania in a one-room log cabin. He
was the oldest of ten siblings. Graduating with honors, he became a successful lawyer.
He served in the War of 1812. Buchanan fell in love with Anne Coleman, the daughter of
a millionaire but her parents felt he was fortune hunting. She was forced to break the
engagement. Shortly thereafter she committed suicide over her grief. The parents
would not let Buchanan attend the funeral. He pledged that he would never marry--and
he didn’t. Buchanan was the only President to remain single. His beautiful niece,
Harriet Lane, more popular than he, served as the official hostess. During his term, just
prior to the Civil War, states began to secede from the Union. Though times were tough
then, some women dressed in full skirts and beautiful fur hats trimmed with ostrich
feathers. Pony Express riders were new in the West. Queen Victoria sent the President
greetings over the first Atlantic cable.

16th Abraham Lincoln (1861-65) wrote of himself, “I am six-feet, four-inches tall nearly,
and lean in flesh weighing on average 180 pounds; dark complexion, with coarse black
hair and grey eyes–no other marks or brands recollected.” He always exhibited a
tender. Once he stopped a gang of boys who were torturing a tortoise with burning
sticks. Lincoln came from a poor frontier family who could barely feed themselves or
keep warm in winter. Lincoln’s mother died when he was nine, and his life-long
relationship with his father was not good. His father disapproved of young Abe
spending time on “eddication”. On the other hand, his step-mother was warm and
loving, often taking his side over her husband’s. When, as President, he was shot, his
father refused to come, and also refused to attend his funeral. As a young man he hired
himself out as a laborer earning 25 cents a day. Lincoln was once postmaster though
there were no post offices yet. He delivered mail once a week, carrying it in his hat.
Lincoln decided to study law though he had only a year’s formal education. With no law
books in New Salem, he would walk 20 miles back and forth to Springfield to borrow
books. His law office was disorganized. He kept an envelope on his desk labeled
“When you can’t find it anywhere else, look into this”. Lincoln was well-known for his
wrestling abilities, his funny stories, and his imitations of community leaders.
Historians say his lineage has been traced back to a Samuel Lincoln who came to
Massachusetts from England in 1637. Probably Lincoln’s first love was Ann Rutledge,
the daughter of a tavern keeper. When she died unexpectedly and very young, Lincoln’s
friends feared that he might commit suicide. A year later, no one know why, he agreed
to marry a girl named Mary Owens, sight unseen. Once he saw here he wrote:
“...the only trouble when I saw her was that she was too full of fat to permit of its
contracting into wrinkles, but from her want of teeth, weather-beaten appearance in
general, and from a notion that ran in my head that nothing could have commenced at
the size of infancy and reached her present bulk in less than 35 or 40 years, and in
short, I was not at all pleased with her. But what could I do? I had told my sister that I
would take her for better or for worse. ”
It took him 18 months to convince Missy Owens that life with him would not be easy.
She finally agreed not to marry him. Then he became engaged to Mary Todd but soon
decided he was in love with another gal, Matilda Edwards, who was staying in the same
house as Mary Todd. His friends, fearing he was crazy, took him away to recover. He
married Mary Todd which proved a difficult marriage. They had four boys. Only one lived
to adulthood. Days after Lincoln’s son Willie died, his son Tad, who was sick but
recovering, adamantly refused to take his medicine. The President left a meeting,
slipped into his room and soon came out, “Tad and I fixed things up,” he announced.
The nurse was shocked. She found Tad smiling and taking his medicine. He also had
a bank check clutched in his hand. The check read, “Pay to Tad (when he is well
enough to present) Five Dollars”. Lincoln was the only President to get a patent. He
invented a device to lift ships over dangerous shoals by using buoyant air chambers. It
was never used. He was also the first major leader to speak out for women having the
right to vote. His followers dubbed him “The Rail-splitter”. Lincoln never belonged to a
church. His wife talked him into having seances at the White House. As his train
passed through major cities heading to Washington for his inauguration, he learned
there was a plot to kill him. He slipped off the train in Philadelphia with one companion,
went through Baltimore, and onto Washington where he arrived unannounced. By the
time he got there, seven southern states had already left the Union and had formed the
“Confederate States of America.” Others soon followed. Lincoln invited Frederick
Douglass, the famous black abolitionist and former slave, to his inauguration.
Douglass was prevented from entering, but he tried again and made it.

When Lincoln saw him, he said, “Here comes my friend Douglass. Lincoln left his
guests and went to chat with him. Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation which
freed all slaves. He also ordered General Grant to give generous terms of surrender to
General Lee when he surrendered. The President showed compassion and
conciliation to all involved desiring first and foremost that the Union be preserved. The
surrender took place April 9, 1865. Six days later, Lincoln laid dead, the first President to
be assassinated. He was shot at Ford Theater by John Wilkes Booth and died shortly
thereafter. Though he was unpopular as President, his death caused even his enemies
to praise him.

17th Andrew Johnson (1865-69) was a stocky, but muscular man, five-feet, 10-inches
tall, sporting unruly hair, heavy eyebrows, and a short temper. Never attending school a
day in his life, he was a wise man who fought strongly for what he believed to be right.
His family was poor. His father died when he was three and his mother supported the
family as a seamstress and washerwoman.
While apprenticed to a tailor a co-worker taught him to read, but he could not write.
Andrew convinced his mother and new step-father to move from North Carolina to
Tennessee which they did in a two-wheeled cart. He opened a tailor shop there and
soon married 16-year-old Eliza McCardle who taught him to write and do simple math.
He made most of his own clothes and made a suit for the governor of Kentucky. He and
Eliza had five children, one becoming a Union soldier who was later killed in the Civil
War. Being a good orator, Johnson was first elected mayor, then to other offices, then
became a U.S. senator, and then Vice President under Lincoln. Though a southerner,
he was opposed to states’ secession. When Lincoln was killed, the then-radical
republicans in the Senate wanted the South punished harshly. They felt Johnson was a
man they could easily control, but they got a surprise. He, like Lincoln, wanted mercy
and peace. Senators worked against him and found an unfair way to impeach him.

However, he was spared removal from office by a single vote. After being President, he
went on to be elected again to the Senate. Democrats now had control of the House
and more strength in the Senate. When he made a speech reaffirming his beliefs for a
softer reconstruction of the South, in the same senate chambers that had almost
banished him from the presidency seven years earlier, applause broke out for him. He
finally felt justified. He died just four months later.

Well, as usual, we are out of space with lots more fun material to share. So we’ll save it
until next month and continue on with our presidential trivia then. Until then, God bless
you all. Marge                                         -END